Tipitaka, The Pali Canon

The Tipitaka (Pali ti, “three,” + pitaka, “baskets”), or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.

The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the texts add up to thousands of printed pages. Most (but not all) of the Canon has already been published in English over the years. Although only a small fraction of these texts are available on this website, this collection can be a good place to start.

The three divisions of the Tipitaka are:

1. Vinaya Pitaka

The collection of texts concerning the rules of conduct governing the daily affairs within the Sangha — the community of bhikkhus (ordained monks) and bhikkhunis (ordained nuns). Far more than merely a list of rules, the Vinaya Pitaka also includes the stories behind the origin of each rule, providing a detailed account of the Buddha’s solution to the question of how to maintain communal harmony within a large and diverse spiritual community.

2. Sutta Pitaka

The collection of suttas, or discourses, attributed to the Buddha and a few of his closest disciples, containing all the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism. (More than one thousand sutta translations are available on this website.) The suttas are divided among five nikayas (collections):

Digha Nikaya — the “long collection”

Majjhima Nikaya — the “middle-length collection”

Samyutta Nikaya — the “grouped collection”

Anguttara Nikaya — the “further-factored collection”

Khuddaka Nikaya — the “collection of little texts”:





Sutta Nipata











Nettippakarana (included only in the Burmese edition of the Tipitaka)



3. Abhidhamma Pitaka

The collection of texts in which the underlying doctrinal principles presented in the Sutta Pitaka are reworked and reorganized into a systematic framework that can be applied to an investigation into the nature of mind and matter.


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Buddhas Quotes and Sayings

Drop the mind and the divine. God is not an object, it is a merger. The mind resists a merger, the mind is against surrender; the mind is very cunning and calculating. – Osho

Truth cannot be delivered, there is no way to deliver it. Once delivered it is dead, it has already become untrue. – Osho

Spiritual practice with a view to winning a lawsuit and earning money, or to helping others win in court and acquire property, shows a very mean understanding. – Sri Ramakrishna

The fundamental understanding of oneself does not come through knowledge or through the accumulation of experiences, which is merely the cultivation of memory. The understanding of oneself is from moment to moment; if we merely accumulate knowledge of the self, that very knowledge prevents further understanding, because accumulated knowledge and experience become the center through which thought focuses and has its being. – Jiddu Krishnamurti

Treading the spiritual path is not like the riding of a saddled horse, but like walking on the sharp edge of a sword. – Meher Baba

When you observe your delusions, you will know that they are baseless and not dependable. In this way you can cut confusion and doubt. This is what i call wisdom. – Bodhidharma

Yoys and sorrows are time-born and cannot last. Therefore, do not be perturbed by these. The greater the difficulties and obstructions, the more intense will be your endeavour to cling to His feet and the more will your prayer increase from within. And when the time is ripe, you will gain mastery over this power. – Ananandamayi Ma

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Buddhist Beliefs

Besides the fact that Buddhists are told to think for themselves, and that Buddhism as a philosophy exists across many cultures, time periods, and with varying teachings and practices, there are some core Buddhism beliefs that might be considered representative of most Buddhists.

1. Buddha is Not a God

The Buddha was an ordinary man, who 2,500 years ago saw clearly into the true nature of reality. As such, Buddha’s teachings are not set rules to follow, nor theonly wisdom in the world. Rather, they should be seen as advice to consider, from someone who has ‘gone beyond’ everyday views, ideas, and conceptions. Many have also become ‘enlightened’ before Buddha, have since the Buddha, and will in the future.

2. You Should Not Believe Anything Without Thinking

Buddhists are encouraged to test everything they read or hear, to see if it stands up to their own standards as true or not.

3. Gods and Deities are Cultural

Some Buddhist schools have many Gods, others have none. But it would be wrong to say that Buddhism itself teaches atheism, pantheism, or any other position on gods and deities. Gods are the conception of a particular time and culture, and may be used more or less wisely in the development of one’s spiritual practice.

4. But… Don’t worry too much about the nature of God

The Buddha said it was more important to take steps to end your suffering than to follow endless discussions on the ‘true’ nature of God (and other such unanswerable questions).

5. The Purpose of Life

Life exists in itself – there is no inherent meaning attached to life. However – as all human beings (and animals) wish for happiness and not to suffer – the purpose of life may be said to end that suffering.

6. The Afterlife Depends on this Life

Buddhism teaches that in an interconnected world, all actions have consequences (karma). The consequences of acts undertaken in this and earlier lifetimes will be felt in a next one, in a process known as reincarnation. It is a Buddhist aim to educate oneself and meditate in order to escape from this cycle of rebirth, to enter Nirvana.

7. Books and Teachings are Very Important

It is important to read and to listen to great teachers, so we can ‘undo’ more of our ignorance. Books are important, as is listening to great teachers. In fact, it is one of the most important things we can do with our lives.

8. Meditation is Key

A key belief in all Buddhist groups is the importance of meditation. Without calming our mind, and examining our mind’s nature and its beliefs, we can never reach enlightenment. Doing this sitting down is called meditation, and doing this while we undertake everyday activities is called mindfulness.

9. Healing Comes from Mind

Buddhism believes that our external situation is created by our internal minds. This is equally true for our health and the state of our bodies. Many Buddhists use meditation, mantras, and prayers alongside medicines to help heal themselves.

10. It’s Up To Ourselves

Buddhism maintains that it is not up to others to make us meditate or study. We are responsible for creating our own suffering, and it is solely up to us to create the circumstances for our release. It requires personal wisdom and commitment.

11. Our Bodies Are Precious

A life reborn as a human is considered a very precious thing. To have a long life is a rare and important opportunity to end our suffering. Hence, it is important to keep healthy.

12. Your Spiritual Community is Important

You do not have to go to a temple or meditation class to be a Buddhist. But being surrounded by others with similar views and objectives as yourself will be beneficial for one’s motivation, sense of purpose and deepening one’s understanding.

13. Interconnectedness is the Nature of Reality

Buddhists believe that everything is interconnected – every object, being, and concept is connected to what caused it, and what is around it. Also known as ‘emptiness’, Buddhists try to see that there is nothing in the universe that is not connected to everything else.

14. It’s Good to Be Good

Buddhists believe in the idea of karma (a logical extension from everything being interconnected). What we do to others will ultimately affect ourselves.

Hence Buddhism advocates doing good deeds, but not just the following strict rules. It is up to the individual to consider the wisest course of action for their future long term happiness. Five precepts, or ‘guides’, are often given as advice as to actions that will often most lead to beneficial outcomes. They are: not to lie, steal or defraud, kill or injure others, hurt via sexual relationships, and to not further cloud your mind with too many intoxicants.

15. Compassion is Key

Compassion is a natural extension of understanding and wisdom. With true wisdom we grow more compassionate for the people we meet. And with compassion we ourselves grow wiser.

16. Sex is Neither Bad nor Good

In Buddhism, it is less the act of sex, or when or with whom it is performed that is important. More important is the motivation, attachment, and consequences of any act.

17. Strive for Balance

The Buddha himself learned that it is important not to be too strict on oneself (or on others). Moderation is the key to success in most things.

18. It’s Never Too Late to Begin

Some Buddhist schools emphasize that enlightenment is a quick process, that can happen at any moment. Others emphasize that it is difficult, and can take many lifetimes. Both agree, it is never too late to start practicing and thinking about the right way to live. The less ignorance you have, the less you will suffer.

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The appeal of Buddhism

Buddhism is one of the fastest growing religions and by some estimates, it is THE fastest growing religion, especially among those who convert from one religion to another.

In 2005 the Swedish government conducted a survey and one of the questions asked high school students which religion they would like to choose. And 60% answered Buddhism. The number of Buddhists in the Netherlands rose nearly 1,500% (from 16,000 to over 250,000) from 1998 to 2009. The number of Buddhists has been steadily rising in Asia too. In Taiwan the number of Buddhists grew from 5.5 million in 2001 to 8 million in 2008. During that same seven year period the number of Buddhists in India grew from about 1% to 3.25% which was about 35 million in 2008.

In the fast-paced world of modern life, many are becoming attracted to the meditation teachings found in Buddhism. For some it is for that reason and one or more of the following:

  • 1. The Logic of The Four Noble Truths (the logic of a teaching based on the causes and cures to our everyday suffering).
  • 2. The Compatibility of the Sciences with Buddha’s teachings.
  • 3. The teachings are compatible with and talk about life on other planets.
  • 4. The teachings on the evils of slavery and the caste system.
  • 5. The teachings on the equality of women.
  • 6. The recognition of humans as members of the Animal Kingdom.
  • 7. A meditation technique beyond relaxation, but also for wisdom. There is a clear path for spiritual and personal development.
  • 8. The longevity (health) of the Buddha (killed at the age of 80 from bad mushrooms during an age when life expectancy was 35 to 40 at best).
  • 9. There is no blind faith or unthinking worship in Buddhism.
  • 10. Questions are encouraged and investigation into the teachings is allowed and important.
  • 11. Buddhism teaches to take full responsibility for all of our actions.
  • 12. It can be approached, realized, and experienced, with immediate results.
  • 13. It teaches that followers of other religions are also rewarded in the afterlife.
  • 14. The teachings emphasize compassion, tolerance, and moderation.
  • 15. Humility of the Buddha

Once Sariputta remarked, “Venerable sir, I have such confidence in the Blessed One that I believe there has not been nor ever will be nor exists at present another ascetic or brahmin more knowledgeable than the Blessed One with respect to enlightenment.” The Buddha responds, “Lofty indeed is this bellowing utterance of yours, Sariputta, you have roared a definitive, categorical lion’s roar. Have you now, Sariputta, encompassed with your mind the minds of all the Arahants, the Perfectly Enlightened Ones, arisen in the past and known thus: Those Blessed Ones were of such virtue, or of such qualities, or such wisdom?” Sariputta responds, “No, venerable sir.” Samyutta Nikaya 47.12

In that discourse, instead of agreeing with the bold praise of the Buddha given to him by Sariputta, the Buddha basically asks him, “Have you met every Buddha of the past, present, and future? Then how can you call me the best that ever was or will ever be?” Such was the amazing wisdom, the intelligence, and humility of the Buddha of our time.

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Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th/6th century CE. He is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Ch’an(Sanskrit: Dhyāna, Japanese: Zen) to China, and regarded as the first Chinese patriarch. According to Chinese legend, he also began the physical training of the Shaolin monks that led to the creation of Shaolinquan.

Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, and subsequent accounts became layered with legend.[1] There are three principal sources for Bodhidharma’s biography[2]: Yáng Xuànzhī’s (Yang Hsüan-chih) The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang (547), Tánlín’s preface to the Two Entrances and Four Acts (6th century CE), and Dàoxuān’s (Tao-hsuan) Further Biographies of Eminent Monks (7th century CE).

These sources vary on their account of Bodhidharma being either “from Persia” (547 CE)[3], “a Brahman monk from South India” (645 CE)[3], “the third son of a Brahman king of South India” (ca. 715 CE).[3] Some traditions specifically describe Bodhidharma to be the third son of aTamil Pallava king from Kanchipuram.[4][5]

The accounts also differ on the date of his arrival, with one early account claiming that he arrived during the Liú Sòng Dynasty (420–479) and later accounts dating his arrival to the Liáng Dynasty (502–557). Bodhidharma was primarily active in the lands of the Northern Wèi Dynasty(386–534). Modern scholarship dates him to about the early 5th century.[6]

Several stories about Bodhidharma have become popular legends, which are still being used in the Ch’an and Zen-tradition.

Bodhidharma’s teachings and practice centered on meditation and the Lankavatara Sutra.

The Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (952) identifies Bodhidharma as the 28th Patriarch of Buddhism in an uninterrupted line that extends all the way back to the Buddha himself.

Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is referred as “The Blue-Eyed Barbarian” (碧眼胡) in Chinese Chan texts.[7]


Contemporary accounts

There are two known extant accounts written by contemporaries of Bodhidharma.

Yáng Xuànzhī (Yang Hsüan-chih) – The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang

A Dehua ware porcelain statuette of Bodhidharma, from the late Ming Dynasty, 17th century

The earliest text mentioned Bodhidharma is The Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang (洛陽伽藍記 Luòyáng Qiélánjì) which is compiled in 547 by Yáng Xuànzhī (Yang-Hsuan-chih 楊衒之), a writer and translator of Mahāyāna Buddhist texts into the Chinese language. Yang gave the following account:

“At that time there was a monk of the Western Region named Bodhidharma, a Persian Central Asian. He traveled from the wild borderlands to China. Seeing the golden disks [on the pole on top of Yǒngníng’s stupa] reflecting in the sun, the rays of light illuminating the surface of the clouds, the jewel-bells on the stupa blowing in the wind, the echoes reverberating beyond the heavens, he sang its praises. He exclaimed: “Truly this is the work of spirits.” He said: “I am 150 years old, and I have passed through numerous countries. There is virtually no country I have not visited. Even the distant Buddha-realms lack this.” He chanted homage and placed his palms together in salutation for days on end.”[8]

[edit]T’an-lín’s preface to the Two Entrances and Four Acts

The second account was written by T’an-lín (曇林; 506–574). T’an-lín’s brief biography of the “Dharma Master” is found in his preface to the Two Entrances and Four Acts, a text traditionally attributed to Bodhidharma, and the first text to identify Bodhidharma as South Indian:

“The Dharma Master was a South Indian of the Western Region. He was the third son of a great Indian king. His ambition lay in the Mahayana path, and so he put aside his white layman’s robe for the black robe of a monk […] Lamenting the decline of the true teaching in the outlands, he subsequently crossed distant mountains and seas, traveling about propagating the teaching in Han and Wei.”[9]

T’an-lín’s account was the first to mention that Bodhidharma attracted disciples,[10] specifically mentioning Dàoyù (道育) and Huìkě (慧可), the latter of whom would later figure very prominently in the Bodhidharma literature. T’an-lín has traditionally been considered a disciple of Bodhidharma, but it is more likely that he was a student of Huìkě.[11]

Later accounts

Dàoxuān (Tao-hsuan) – Further Biographies of Eminent Monks

This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768)

In the 7th-century historical work Further Biographies of Eminent Monks (續高僧傳 Xù gāosēng zhuàn), Dàoxuān (道宣; 596-667) possibly drew on Tanlin’s preface as a basic source, but made several significant additions:

Firstly, Dàoxuān adds more detail concerning Bodhidharma’s origins, writing that he was of “South Indian Brahman stock” (南天竺婆羅門種 nán tiānzhú póluómén zhŏng).[12]

Secondly, more detail is provided concerning Bodhidharma’s journeys. Tanlin’s original is imprecise about Bodhidharma’s travels, saying only that he “crossed distant mountains and seas” before arriving in Wei. Dàoxuān’s account, however, implies “a specific itinerary”:[13] “He first arrived at Nan-yüeh during the Sung period. From there he turned north and came to the Kingdom of Wei”.[12] This implies that Bodhidharma had travelled to China by sea, and that he had crossed over the Yangtze River.

Thirdly, Dàoxuān suggests a date for Bodhidharma’s arrival in China. He writes that Bodhidharma makes landfall in the time of the Song, thus making his arrival no later than the time of the Song’s fall to the Southern Qi Dynasty in 479.[13]

Finally, Dàoxuān provides information concerning Bodhidharma’s death. Bodhidharma, he writes, died at the banks of the Luo River, where he was interred by his disciple Huike, possibly in a cave. According to Dàoxuān’s chronology, Bodhidharma’s death must have occurred prior to 534, the date of the Northern Wei Dynasty’s fall, because Huike subsequently leaves Luoyang for Ye. Furthermore, citing the shore of the Luo River as the place of death might possibly suggest that Bodhidharma died in the mass executions at Heyin 河陰 in 528. Supporting this possibility is a report in the Taishō shinshū daizōkyō stating that a Buddhist monk was among the victims at Héyīn.[14]

[edit]Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall

In the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (祖堂集 Zǔtángjí) of 952, the elements of the traditional Bodhidharma story are in place. Bodhidharma is said to have been a disciple of Prajñātāra,[15] thus establishing the latter as the 27th patriarch in India. After a three-year journey, Bodhidharma reaches China in 527[15]during the Liang Dynasty (as opposed to the Song period of the 5th century, as in Dàoxuān). The Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall includes Bodhidharma’s encounter with Emperor Wu, which was first recorded around 758 in the appendix to a text by Shen-hui (神會), a disciple of Huineng.[16]

Finally, as opposed to Daoxuan’s figure of “over 150 years,”[17] the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall states that Bodhidharma died at the age of 150. He was then buried on Mount Xiong’er (熊耳山 Xióngĕr Shān) to the west of Luoyang. However, three years after the burial, in the Pamir Mountains, Sòngyún (宋雲)—an official of one of the later Wei kingdoms—encountered Bodhidharma, who claimed to be returning to India and was carrying a single sandal. Bodhidharma predicted the death of Songyun’s ruler, a prediction which was borne out upon the latter’s return. Bodhidharma’s tomb was then opened, and only a single sandal was found inside.

Insofar as, according to the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall, Bodhidharma left the Liang court in 527 and relocated to Mount Song near Luoyang and theShaolin Monastery, where he “faced a wall for nine years, not speaking for the entire time”,[18] his date of death can have been no earlier than 536. Moreover, his encounter with the Wei official indicates a date of death no later than 554, three years before the fall of the last Wei kingdom.

Dàoyuán – Transmission of the Lamp

Subsequent to the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall, the only dated addition to the biography of Bodhidharma is in the Jingde Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (景德傳燈錄 Jĭngdé chuándēng lù, published 1004 CE), by Dàoyuán (道原), in which it is stated that Bodhidharma’s original name had been Bodhitāra but was changed by his master Prajñātāra.[19] The same account is given by the Japanese master Keizan’s 13th century work of the same title.[20]

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Buddhism For The Future by Dr. D. Sri Dhammananda Part 1


1 . Introduction
2 . Duties of Parents In the Upbringing of their Children
3 . Blessing Services for Children
4 . Why do we go to the Buddha for Refuge ?
5 . Buddhist Education and Cultural Practices
6 . Marriage
7 . Religious Rites
8 . Taboos
9 . Charms and Black Magic
10 . Images , Holy Water , Holy Thread , Talismans and Amulets
11 . Sickness
12 . Death
13 . Post Mortem
14 . Funerals
15 . Burial and Cremation
16 . Disposal of Ashes
17 . Period of Mourning
18 . Post-Funeral Rites and Memorial Services
19 . Alms Giving
20 . Conclusion


Happy events such as birth and marriage , and sad occasions like sickness and death in a person’s existence very often necessitate the observance of certain rites , which have been performed in every society from time immemorial . Such rites , which originated even long before the various major world religions became established , have been handed down by our forefathers , and in the passage of time , have gradually assumed the form of traditional customary practices until the present day . We continue to practices until the present day . We continue to practices many of these rites through ignorance and fear , not daring to change or discard them even with the acquisition of a modern education and sophisticated life-style .

In particular many of the rites performed on sad occasions like death and funerals are shrouded in mystery and superstition , and very often incur a tremendous financial burden on bereaved families . This is one of the major reasons why many Buddhists are easily converted to other religions because it offers good ammunition for other religionists to hurl their criticisms and attacks on the Buddhists . It is imperative that the Buddhist community in this country should awaken to this situation and make courageous efforts to make reforms in the performance of their rites and rituals in consonance with correct Buddhist religious principles .

This Book presents in a simple and understandable manner the various rites which could be performed by Buddhists on happy and sad occasions in their lives . It is hoped that they will make efforts to understand them and practise them when the occasion arises . By so doing , they will not only attain satisfaction and a sense of security in the knowledge that they are performing proper Buddhist rites , but also help to enhance the image of their own religion in the eyes of others .

The Buddhist Way
Duties of Parents in the Upbringing of their Children

The Birth of a child is a happy event . Having a baby and bringing him up is an adventure that can be embarked upon happily and with confidence . At the same time it means the beginning of a long period of sacrifice and responsibility for the parents . Even though human beings are far advanced on the evolutionary ladder , their young normally take a long time to mature and become independent . Parents have the onerous duty of the bearing responsibility of caring their children and nurturing them to become useful adults of the future . However over the centuries , societies have developed certain well-tested formulae to guide parents i this task of child rearing . In this connection religion plays a central role in providing parents with a framework within which to train the young in ethics , behaviour and morality . In Buddhism , the Buddha has given very useful advice on the duties of parents towards their children and vice versa . The SIGALOVADA SUTRA is perhaps the best knows of these valuable injunctions . The Buddha related an incident of how he had once noticed a young man performing a simple ritual of bowing to the six directions which are north , south , east , west , zenith and nadir . Upon being questioned as to the meaning and intent of his action , the young man replied that he did not know the significance of his performance but that he was merely following his late father’s advice . Characteristically , the Buddha did not condemn the young man for performing such a ritual , but gave it as an useful meaning by a practical interpretation . He said that the act of paying respects to the six directions signified honouring and fulfilling one’s duties and obligations to one’s parents , teachers , religious personalities , one’s wife , children and employees . Thus , we see that the with others , but more especially so between parents and children . Parents must care for their children , by allowing them to be independent when the time is right and by giving them their rightful inheritance in due course . On the other hand , children on their part are duty-bound to care for their parents by extending to them filial devotion . This is done out of mutual respect and gratitude towards them and not out of expectation any reward in return . It is indicated here that there is a close link between religion and parents-children relationship . Parents should not fail to underscore the religious signifcance of the birth of a child . A family that develops its relationship along sensible established religious lines cannot go wrong .

Parents are duty-bound to develop such a relationship based on their religious cultural heritage . Whilst other religionists have their formal and obligatory baptisms and christenings to perform , Buddhist parents need only bring their children to the temple so as to reaffirm their faith in the Triple Gem and to seek refuge in the Buddha , the Dhamma and the Sangha . Having sought refuge in the Triple Gem parents themselves may be endowed with the confidence in the upbringing of their children with the firm assurance that they are being protected from all the evil . We cannot deny the existence of evil forces around us which are malevolent towards human beings and which could cause harm . Bringing a child to the temple , and having sacred traditional religious services performed in its favour would definitely contribute to the well-being of the child . This could also be considered as the initial step in associating the child with the temple which if continued from a very tender age , could become part and parcel of its life . This habit if maintained up to adult life would serve the person in good stead when confronted with the problems .

Blessing Services for Children

The reciting of Sutras imparts very beneficial effects on a child . It was reported that during the Buddha’s time , when a child who was in a critical condition due to external evil influence was brought before him , the Buddha instructed that the Sutras be recited by an assembly of monks . The resultant effect was that the child averted death and lived to a ripe old age . In fact he was called AYUWADDHANA meaning“long life” because he was no longer in danger of premature death .

Why do we go to the Buddha for Refuge ?

When those who believe in a god experience fear , sorrow or any disturbance they pray for help and protection . Many Buddhists ask whom they can turn to when they are confronted with insecurity , In such circumstances Buddhists can recall the Buddha to their mind and seek solace . There is no doubt that the Buddhist concept of god is different from that in other religions but when they contemplate the supreme qualities of the Buddha , his great victories and his calm and noble characteristics , their minds will be calmed and gain confidence . Even many other religionists say god is not a person , but a force which is personalized in the mind . When their minds are calmed and strengthened by focusing on this power , they are in a position to face disturbances to evaluate the problems and find the means to overcome them . Buddhists can overcome their problem in a similar manner by recalling the image of the Buddha . Naturally many of our problems are caused by the mind and mind alone is able to solve them through understanding and confidence . That is why the knowledge of the Dharma is important . When the mind is strengthened through inspiration and devotion towards the Buddha it can overcome the sense of helplessness and the fear of evil spirits , of being alone , and confidence is gained . This is what is meant by going for refuge to the Buddha .

Whilst seeking refuge for the child at the temple offering flowers , incense , candles or fruits may be made at the shrine room and the residents monk invited to recite sutras for the blessing of the infant . If so desired , the advice of the monks may also be sought for a suitable Buddhist name to be given to the child .

As the child grows up , it is the responsibility of parents to bring the child regularly to the temple to enable it to associate with the religious-minded people and listen to simple religious discourses and sermons and derive benefits therefrom . In course of time the child will get used to performing Buddhist practices and will feel comfortable amidst the serene atmosphere in the temple surroundings . Of course children should also be brought to the temple for special blessing services on important occasions like their first day to school , examinations , birthdays and other happy events . When children get used to listening to the sutras , they acquire immense confidence in themselves because they know that through the beneficial influence of the sutras , they are being protected . THey therefore tend to perform tend to perform better in whatever undertaking they set out to do and as a result are less nervous , feel more secure and will no longer have the dread of being left utterly helpless .

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four-faced Buddha (四面佛, Sìmiàn fó)

Phra Phrom (พระพรหม; from Sanskrit: Vara Brahma) is the Thai representation of the Hindu god Brahma,[1] who is regarded in Thai culture as a deity of good fortune and protection.

Worshipers of Phra Phrom usually offer incense, candles, jasmine flowers or jasmine garlands and young coconut milk (with water in them) in their worship, usually placing these offerings before all four heads of Phra Phrom, each head representing a different aspect of the deity; it is believed each side of Phra Phrom offers different blessings. Another common way of worship is to place wooden elephant statues on the altar to honor him. Phra Phrom is also known to admire Thai classical music, which is played near larger scale outdoor altars, accompanied by dancers. Worshipers of Phra Phrom are also usually advised to abstain from consuming meat. It is also believed that worshipers have to make good on any promises made to the deity else misfortune will befall them instead of the fortune that was asked for.

Phra Phrom is colloquially known outside Thailand as the four-faced Buddha (四面佛, Sìmiàn fó) by overseas Chinese worshipers, especially in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan where worship of Phra Phrom is very popular.

A celebrated example of this representation of Brahma is the statue at the Erawan Shrine in Bangkok.[2] The golden dome of theGovernment House of Thailand also contains a statue of Phra Phrom.

The name Brahmā originates in Vedic tradition, in which Brahmā appears as the creator of the universe. By contrast, early Buddhist texts describe several different Brahmās coexisting in the same universe; some of them think they are “all powerful” creators of the world, but they are corrected by the Buddha. The myths, characters, and functions of these Brahmās are distinct from those of the Vedic Brahmā.[1] However, at least one of the Buddhist Brahmās is identified as being the object of worship of pre-Buddhist brahmins. The Buddha described the Vedic Brahmā as a misunderstanding, or mistaken remembrance, of one or more of the Buddhist Brahmās, as explained in the Brahmajāla-sutta (Digha Nikaya 1).

There is no identity between the Buddhist Brahmās and the Hindu conception of brahman as an all-encompassing divine force.

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The Surangama Sutra

The Surangama Sutra states that the Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 is actually an accomplished spiritual-practitioner during Shakyamuni Buddha’s time. At the Dharma assembly whereby the Surangama Sutra was first delivered, the Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 recounted His own experience at spiritual cultivation to Shakyamuni Buddha, “I remember that many aeons ago, when I was a lecherous mundane being, there lived a Buddha by the name of the ‘Emptiness King’. The Buddha preached that persons with strong sexual desire are like pathetic souls engulfed in great flames. Meanwhile, He taught me to be mindful of the cold and heated inner energies circulating throughout my body and limbs. Practising thus, I managed to gather and consolidate the Divine Brilliance within me, eventually enabling the transformation of my lust into the Fire of Wisdom. From then onwards, all Buddhas began to call me the ‘Fire Head’. “Utilizing the power generated by the Fire Brilliance Samadhi, I finally attained Arahathood. I made the great vow that I would become a Guardian Deity to protect the teachings of the Buddhas, and to personally subdue all demonic obstacles.” Due to His distinct method of attaining spiritual enlightenment, the Ucchusma Deity is also known as the ‘Fire Head Vajrapala 火头金刚.

The Ucchusma Vajrapala Sutra, on the other hand, asserts that the Ucchusma Deity is actually the Vajra manifestation of Shakyamuni Buddha. Legend has it that when Shakyamuni Buddha was about to enter into Nirvana, all heavenly beings, with the exception of the ‘Spiral Hair-knot Brahma King’, came to pay their respect to Buddha. The Brahman King was in fact enjoying himself with the heavenly maidens in his own celestial palace. The heavenly gods, being unhappy with the arrogance of the Brahma King, went to his abode and try to persuade him to attend the Dharma assembly. Upon reaching his palace however, the gods found themselves trapped in the defiled energy cast by the supernatural powers of the king. Even some of the Vajra Deities 金刚神 who were later sent to apprehend the Brahman King were imprisoned by the foul forces as well.

When Shakyamuni Buddha came to learn of this, He employed His Origin Wisdom, and the Light of Perpetual Joy and Pliancy was emitted from His heart. The Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 soon appeared from amidst the revolving radiance of the Buddha’s heart, and ascended to the celestial palace of the Brahma King. Despite the defiled energy hurled at Him by the Brahman King, the Ucchusma Deity was unharmed as He immediately turned these forces of contamination into ordinary soil. In no time, the Brahma King was subdued and brought to the feet of Shakyamuni Buddha. For this reason, the Ucchusma Deity is also known as the ‘Filth-eliminating Vajrapala’ 不净金刚.

The Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 is venerated in both Eastern Tantrism and the Tibetan Tantrayana School. Khro bo sMe brtzegs, mNol ba med pa, sMe ba brtsegs pa and Bhurkumkuta are some of His Tibetan names. Nevertheless, the Deity is more popular amongst followers of the Eastern tradition. This is especially so in the case of the Chinese Tian Tai Tantric sect, whereby the Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 is revered as a Deity belonging to the Karma (Enlightened Activities) group of spiritual practices. In the Shingon tradition however, this important position of the Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 is replaced by the Vajrayaksha 金刚夜叉Deity.

In addition, it must be noted that the cultivation-method of the Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 is not commonly known. Although the practice is recorded in the earlier collections of Dharani Sutras, it is not found in the later and major Tantric scriptures such as the Mahavairocana Sutra and Vajra Peak Sutra.

“The Ucchusma Vajrapala is also known as the Fire Head Vajrapala 火头金刚, the Indestructible Vajrapala and the Impure Vajrapala. His Origin Vow is to devour and eradicate all filth and impurities.


Elimination of Filth

This perhaps, is the most unique feature of the Ucchusma Vajra 秽迹金刚 Yoga. It implies the elimination of all defiled things, as practising the cultivation-method can not only enable the subduing of all demons, it can also convert sexual desire into the Fire of Wisdom. Besides, evil spirits and poisonous snakes will not dare to come near one who is cultivating the Ucchusma practice 秽迹金刚法.

‘Ucchusma’ in Sanskrit can be defined as ‘to scavenge for the leftover food on the mouth and hands’. This in turn reveals the Deity’s preference for foul things and likewise, His ability at purifying contaminated matters. For this reason, the Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚 is often worshipped in the lavatories of Japanese temples.

Enhancement of the Masculine Energy

With the elimination of filth (which is considered a feature of the Feminine Energy), the Dharma-cultivator’s Masculine Energy is therefore enhanced. As a result, children of the Ucchusma practitioner will be sons rather than daughters, for feminine souls are unable to utilize the body of the cultivator to gain rebirth. In addition, the cultivator shall have no fear for spiritual disturbances and other forms of superstitious taboos.

Spiritual Enlightenment & Supernatural Powers

It must be mentioned that those who have achieved spiritual response in the Ucchusma method, will soon attain Buddhahood enlightenment. Subsequently, the accomplished Ucchusma cultivator can also perform supernatural acts. He is able to avert natural calamities and overpower poisonous dragons, simply by reciting the Ucchusma mantra 秽迹金刚咒 and pointing the Ucchusma mudra 秽迹金刚宝杵手印at his desired objective. He can even delay the death of a dying person, dispel black magic, erect spiritual boundaries, command powerful spirits and wild beasts, enable a dried lake to be refilled with water, a withered tree to produce new sprouts and a scorched hill to regain its greenery.
Worldly Benefits

Practicing His method will result in the generation of tremendous merits. It can also, among many other things, allow for the eradication of illnesses and disasters, the attainment of great magnetizing powers, the prevention of dire accidental occurrences, acquisition of great fortune and the subducing of one’s grievance foes.
Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚明王, In Japan

Ususama also Usushima is a transliteration of Sanskrit Ucchusma 秽迹金刚明王, originally an epithet of Agni 火神, the Indian god of fire, meaning “one whose crackling becomes manifest”. He is also known by various other names such as Eshaku Kongou 秽迹金刚 Jusoku Kongou 受触金剛 and Kazu Kongou 火頭金剛. He is regarded by some as the wrathful manifestation of Fukuujouju 不空成就, one of the five Buddhas of the Diamond Realm, Kongoukai gobutsu 金剛界五佛, and in the Tendai 天台 sect he replaces Kongouyasha Myouou 金剛夜叉明王 as one of the five great myouou “godai myouou” 五大明王 who are the fierce gods who preside over the five directions, in which case he oversees the northern quarter.

His cult appears to have been popular in China, and paintings of him are found among the murals of Dunhuang 敦煌 where it preserved the cave paintings of a thousand Buddhas from the T’ang Dynasty.

Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚明王, was introduced to Japan from China by the priest 空海 (774-835), and he was invoked especially in rites for easy childbirth and the removal of impurities associated with childbirth. In the Shingon 真言 and Zen 禅 sects he is also revered as the tutelary god of the toilet.

Ucchusma Vajrapala 秽迹金刚明王, assumes a variety of wrathful forms with two, four, six or eight arms and is often adorned with skulls and snakes and enveloped in flames.


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Kwan Yin (Guan Yin)

Kwan Yin (also written and pronounced as Guan Yin) is the most important female figure in many Buddhist traditions. She is the goddess of compassion. In Buddhism gods are impermanent higher beings who are still subject to rebirth, they are not absolute power deities or creators, as in the western use of the term God. Kwan Yin is a rebirth of the bodhisattva Avolikiteshvara, a monk from a previous eon who was reborn in a heavenly realm and filled with compassion for all living beings. One legend states that Avolikiteshvara chose to be reborn as a beautiful woman to marry a famous king and convince him to become a Buddhist.

IT is said that when Avalokitesvara who is supremely compassionate, wanted to reveal the divine nature of mercy to mankind he took birth as a woman. So it comes about that in Chinese are we have one of the most beautiful concepts of art East or West, the figure of Kwan-yin Even those who do not know her, the gracious figure of Kwan-yin, in painting, sculpture, metal work or delicate porcelain, conveys something of the spiritual meaning that like an aura of infinite love surrounds her name. It is present in every flowing line of the robe that clothes her, in the graceful shape of her hands, the serene yet tender expression of the oval face, even in the slender, naked feet, one of which rests on the open lotus that is her throne. The whole figure is serene and full of repose, yet at the same time instinct with life, and a soft light seems to spread all about it, as though the rays of compassion are kindled within, to suffuse the world of living beings. Generations of artists have found inspiration for their noblest work in the figure of Kwan-yin; generations of craftsmen have expended their patient skill on the loving creation of her form; and for centuries men and women have turned to her image as the embodiment of their longing for a better, purer life. Lovely and gracious as her figure is, there is nothing in it of sensuality; it seems to be pure spirit, radiant with an ethereal beauty, its form and substance a transmutation into something finer than the gross materials on earth.

She, who is mercy incarnate, shed no tears. Her compassion is not that of an emotion or a passing mood; it has its being in the profound stillness of the heart, where dwells knowledge and understanding. The tranquil face of Kwan-yin reflects the nature of infinite peace, of she who has no desire but to remove the distress of others must herself be undistracted. She lives in the world, suffers with the world, but does not depart from the eternal Void.

Yet there is something awe-inspiring in the thought of a compassion that is completely undiscriminating, a compassion that looks upon all alike – the judge and the criminal, the executioner and the executed, the torturer and the man undergoing torture – and sees them all in a clear and equal light as victims of a self-created situation. Can that godlike dispassion in compassion be likened in any way to the pity that we know, the human pity mixed with hatred of the cause of the suffering? Or is it that we, who have never looked upon injustice without anger, have never known what true compassion is?

Ah, All-merciful One, teach us the love that does not hate! Teach us the pity that does not destroy! Teach us the wisdom that does not scorn! And if man, infatuated by the Ten Thousand Things, cannot learn, let us look upon your image and know that there is hope for the world.


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The Siamese in Kedah under nation-state making

The Siamese in Kedah under nation-state making
Keiko Kuroda (Kagoshima University)
1: Historical Background
Kedah have ever been one of the tributary states of Siam. Siam hadthe tributary states in the Malay Peninsula until 1909. These tributary states were Malay Sultanate states that became Islamized in the 15th century. However, Ayutthaya, the Court of Siam, have keptthe tributary relations with them, sometime with military force. Because these Malay states were important and indispensable port polities for Ayutthaya’s trade network. Anglo-Siam Treaty of 1909 made the modern border between Siam and British Malaya. Satun, which was a part of Kedah, and Patani remained in Siam. And Kedah and others were belonging to British Malaya. This border was the result of political struggle between Government of Siam and British Malaya. However, Kedah had controlled wider area before this. The area spread over archipelago along the western coast of Peninsula near the Phuket Island. And Kedah had the characteristics that were different from other Siam tributary states on the eastern coast. In Kedah, many people could understand and speak Thai Language. The Influence of Thai was left well for the name of the places and the traditional entertainments as well. Then, there are people who speak Thai as vernacular at present. These Thai-speakers are ” the Samsams ” who are Malay Muslims, and the Siamese who are Thai Theravada Buddhists. In this paper, I attempt to reconstruct the historical experiences of the Siamese of Kedah from 19th century to present. The source of the paper is from the documents in the National Archives of Malaysia and data from my fieldwork in Kedah in 1990’s.

2: Thai-speakers in Kedah
The majority of population of Kedah is Malay Muslims. And most of them speak Kedah
dialect of Malay language. However, some are speaking Thai language as vernacular.
There are two kinds of Thai-speakers in Kedah.
One of them is the people called the Samsams. They are Malay-Muslims. The Samsams were classified as one of sub-ethnic groups of Malay in the census in 1911. [Cavendish 1911] The name can find in the Journals of English explorer of 19th century, and later as an official name in the annual reports of Kedah and Perlis. The census of 1911 is the only one official census that informed about the Samsams population and residence distribution. The population of the Samsams had 5 % of the Malay population in 1911. Most of them were paddy farmers and their village concentrated in northern districts; Kubang pasu, Padang Trap, and the center district ; Kota ster ( including Pendang district in it). It is hardly find in the southern district cultivated comparatively later.
On the other hand, another Thai-speaker in Kedah is the Siamese. The Siamese population
distribution is concentrated more. Most of them lived in Pendang district. [see Map.2] I tried to consider since when and where the Siamese came from where and since when and how they lived there by the old materials.

3: The lists of Siamese temples and monks in Kedah and Perlis in 1890 
The lists of Thai Buddhism temples and the registered monks of Kedah and Perlis in 1890,
1892 [ National Archives of Kedah 1992 ] are in the collection of the letters of Sultan Abdul
Hamid of Kedah. The original documents are written in Malay with Jawi writing.
We find 13 Thai temples in the lists, they are concentrated around Bukit Perak of Pendang.
The largest temple is Wat Lamdin that 22 monks were registered. By oral tradition and some documents this temple are also the oldest , had established for several hundreds years before .
However, the documents had been lost, there is no proof now. The existence of the temple is indispensable to the daily life of Siamese Buddhist. Siamese villages also may exist around Thai Temples. The Siamese distribution in the census of 1911 also shows this. It may be that the largest Siamese communities were Padang Peliang, Padang Kerbau
and Tekai villages.  Why have these Siamese come to live here ? Almost Siamese villagers are in the inland area. From a view of searching the route of migration, these areas are the basin of the Muda River. The Muda River is flowing from Patani, and it meanders to the South Kedah, and reaches the Malacca Channel at the end.
And more, Baling area that there is the old temple in 19th century is also the basin area of the Muda River . Topping left the report of the early 19th century that many war refugees from Patani settled in this area. By my observation the Thai-speakers are in Pendang area, there was the Samsams villages in the low carse and the Siamese villages in the hill valley higher. Among these areas, I heard, there are some Malay-speaking villages with Patani dialect [Topping 1850]. The villagers of the Siamese and the Samsam have the memories that they participated in both festival and the ceremony and interchange with the market. And about their origin, they have imperfect memory or insisted the villagers migrated several hundreds before [ interviewed at kg.Nawa ]. It is probably influenced from the oral tradition of old Thai temples.
Comparatively thinking with the Thai-speakers in the northern village of Kedah, the
Samsams in northern area have very few memory with the intercourse with the Siamese, and about their origin, they maintained close communication with the relatives over the border, and have the oral tradition that they have come here from south of Songkhla or Patani to seek good soil about 200 years before[ Kuroda 1992].
There is interesting information to thinking Thai-speakers origin in Kedah . Here, I point out the possibility that some villages of Thai-speakers in Pendang are older migrant communities than that of the northern area.

4: Thai-speakers in ” Bandit Area ” after setting up the border
The border by the treaty of 1909 was the first border as the modern meaning . This
borderline was decided as a result of the political struggles. Actually, people flowed freely over borders like as every day job some crossed it to work as season harvesters from Patani to Kedah. Some went to make cross-border transactions from Kedah to Hatyai or Songkhla. And many are to visit the relatives across the border. Unfortunately, this condition was same for cow robbers and bandits. Robbers went across the border and had act for. The Kedah Police and Border force could not control security at the border area. By that reason, Kedah was well known as ” Bandit Area” in 1920′-30’s. Cheah Boon Kheng, academically analyzed the famous robber’s legends in Kedah[Cheah 1988 ]. Saleh Tui was the Samsam who came from Satun so that name might show it.” Tui “is a short nickname of Satun (Satul) , the most famous robber Nayan, was Malay Muslim. The area of his activity was the same as the hill area that included the Siamese villages of Pendang
Din Prum was a robber who crossed the border from Patani,. He was the Siamese or the
Samsam , and had Thai nationality. At first, he came to steal cows, but later, he appeared to pull a robbery in Baling as well soon. After his job, he cross the border into Thailand, and ran away to the outside of the jurisdiction of the Kedah police. He was the typical outlaw whom the modern border system produced. He had a gun killed by the police of Kedah at the end. But, it became an international problem with Thailand because the police crossed the line into the Thai territory without permit .It is said that such a matter is because it was short of both border guard systems.
In the essay of Tunku Abdul Raman, there is a story of the man who converted from Islam to the Buddhist in the 1930’s to marry a Buddhist’s woman [Tunku Abdul Rahman 1978]. That was general image of the Samsams that was not pious Muslim. Then, Kedah people were afraid of the area of Siamese residence as ” Bandit Area”. This image was just left until recent years.

5: The Choice of National Identity for building Nation
Pacific war started by the invasion of the Japanese army landing on Songkhla and KotaBahru Coast. When Japan surrender at discretion in 1945, the people under British Malaya chose a way to the independence. It was necessary to complete the system of a nation state so that Malaya might be recognized as the country that stood on its own feet internationally. But, a nation state asks to express public identity as the nation to all the people. As for Malaysia, Anti-Japanese movement was growing in the Chinese community in under Japanese occupation. The Japanese army was doubtful about all the Chinese. The Malaya Communist Party was continuing the guerrilla activities, and the Many Chinese who have antipathy in Japan cooperated with this in the border area. After the Japanese army passed, Malay government watched the activities of the Malaya Communist Party, and watched the Chinese trend too.
However, to make a newly multiethnic nation, Malaysia, many races had to cooperate
together. The people were made to elect official identity as Malaysian The Samsam chose a way as Malay Muslim in this process. They spoke Thai, and not ashamed to have interchange with the Siamese in personally. But, it was also important to wipe
away the Negative image of ” Not-pious Muslim” and ” the people of Bandit Area “. And more, The Samsams have closed marital relation that was limited to the Thai-speakers villages till now, because of the daily word and the their own culture. The Samsams learned Malay Language as Malaysian, and in the process to assimilated to the Malay-speaking Malay Muslims. By this, it is sure , their world may be spread for. On the other hand, festivals and customs in their own tradition were abolished as ” not Islam”. The Samsams choose a way to become a standard Malay Muslim by Malay education, so as a results, they got the status of Majority. [ Kuroda 1992]
On the other hand, the Siamese was left in the severe situation. They were minority in
Malaysia, because they were Buddhists. And the Siamese also have negative image such as ” Cow Robber” for Kedah people. At that time, the toughest issue for Malaysian Government was to find a way to coexist with main 3 ethnic groups. The social status of the Siamese in Kedah was a local problem, it hardly reflected.
Therefore, the problem of the Siamese of Kedah brought to light was discussed as not a race problem but a poverty problem in the 1950’s [ K/SUK/SEC 824/68]. By a report about the Siamese of Naka in 1948, though the Siamese of Kedah is the native of Kedah for several hundred years, they were almost forgotten the existence from the Malaysian education and the administrational aid, a reporter warned the Government to help them immediately.

6: The Siamese as “the Poor” and New Village resettlement
At that time , Kedah had trouble with the activities of the guerrilla of the border area. Kedah was worried about robber’s activities, the movement of Islam separatists of Thailand and the armed fights of the Malaya Communist Party. The border area was still in “the Alsatia”. The Kedah government was watching out the Malaya Communist Party had many cooperators in Chinese communities. Then, it was that the poor persons of the border area might cooperate with them. The Government has to take necessary countermeasures immediately. Malaysian government made the series of operations to control the activities of the guerrilla.
First, the inhabitant of the border area is made to migrate forcibly. And The Border Force made wide restricted area along the border and watched there. That purpose to make these ” no-man’sland ” was to cut off the military pipeline of the guerrilla. The inhabitant made to migrate was transferred to resettlement .This resettlement camp was New Villages. This program was enforced from 1952 to 1960 years.
About 400 New Villages were made nationwide. It was said the resettlers to New Villages was squatters and possible collaborators with the Communist Party of Malaya. 85% of resettlement villages were Chinese villages, it was said that it was a kind of race policy.
In Kedah, what kind of village was made the target of the program? In the list of New Village in 1953, there are 50 villages, and Chinese villager are 27. most are in the southern area. In the northern area and the central area, we find the New Villages such as Sintok in “Bandit Area”, and Padang Senai and Pendang also. We find 7 Siamese villages and 4 Samsam villages. Small Siamese villages without temple near the border also resettled to New Village with the bigger village. But, many people had to leave most of their property. Therefore, Kedah government held cultivation guidance and the course because of the stability of the life to the villager of Siam for 1955 years. [K/SUK 1915/72]
Moreover, the border crossing way at Durian Belung which was old overland route connected with Patani and Kedah was sealed off and put under the watch of the Bordor Force by the reason of the defenses. The way is still closed in 2001.

7: The Trouble of Burning Thai temple, Wat Lamdin
However, some villagers rejected to remove the resettlement from their village. The reason is that most of them had to give up their property , for example, cows and rice field. So, many troubles happened with the border police. Some farmer came back to the village without notice, and had gone far inland more to escape from police and army. And, as some case in Lenkas, all villagers have escaped anywhere. It was not clear they were afraid of bandit or guerrillas or border police.
The most unfortunate trouble is the cases of burning Thai temples by Malay soldiers. This
trouble developed into a political issue between Government of Siam and Kedah.
In the case of Lamdin, this trouble occurred in April 1953 [K/SUK 1916/72]. Siamese
villagers of this area remained in the village still though they received removal orders more than three months ago., on the day , Malay Security Forces found the Thai temple of Lamdin on an operation. Security Forces was ordered to find the terrorist’s hiding place and to destroy it. Unfortunately, Thai monks were accidentally absence. Security Forces found the rice and the kerosene oil were stored in a building of the temple. So, Malay soldiers considered this place a terrorist’s storehouse, and set fire to the building . And old Thai temple, Wat Lamdin had burned down with its precious properties and manuscripts that was said kept for several hundreds years.
Such similar events happened even in that neighborhood. The trouble that other Thai
temples were burned down by Malay soldiers had happened frequently. Wat Chamdin temple was burned on 26 March, this Wat Lamdin temple and Wat Pakhla temple was burned on 27, and Wat Kebang Kesom temple was burned on 30 March by Security Forces. Then, the sacred book that showed the history of these old temples, and property such as image of Buddha were destroyed by fire.
The Thai Buddhist society of Kedah and Perlis send a report immediately to the Consul of
Siam in Penang and fixed an apology and made a claim for damages against Kedah government .Kedah government insisted that anyone who did crop work in the applicable area against the order for removal at the time was “terrorism- supporter”. Thai Government and Thai Buddhist Society of Kedah insisted that Thai temple as terrorist
hideout is an unfortunate misunderstanding, and rice storage and oil was kept as the monk’s daily necessities in Thai temple. And more Thai government insisted, as for this border operation, Thai government got agreement of September, 1952 that Thai temples of the area such as Titi Akar, Pendang and Lampan were set outside of the object of the operation. Notwithstanding, this agreement weren’t kept, it is insult to the Thai government .
Kedah government apologized to the Thai government for this trouble, and it was settled
with the thing that indemnities 8000 dollars were paid for the Siamese temple. On the background of this case, the Chinese came in the Thai Buddhism temple. Assimilation by the wedding ceremony of the Chinese and the Siamese was often seen in this
area, too. A Thai temple was made the target of the daily faith of Chinese both as a Buddhism temple with the Thai. It might think that all the Buddhists of this area were doubtful for Malay person force.

8: Siamese after 1960’s to present
After the census in 1911, it is difficult to find the number of Samsam and Siamese in
Malaysian official census. But, Thamrong sakdiAayuwatthana visited Malaysia in 1974, and left a detailed record about the population of the Siamese villages and the scale of the
temples.[Thamrong 1976] By this report in 1974, in Kedah ; not included in Perlis;, there were 26 Thai temple, 27 Siamese Villages, about 3500 families and 17030 persons. the largest population is gathered in Pendang Area, and there are villages of each 1200 person in adjacent Padang Peliang and Padang Pusing . The secondary large population is 3850 persons in Sik area and Baling area 3000 persons, and 2600 persons of the Kuala Nerang area follow them. The largest population in the villages, there are most 2000 people in Naka village of the Kuala Nerang area. However, this Naka village is the resettlement village with other small villages When the public order of Kedah improved, some villager came back to the former village, and cultivate again. But, some gave up to return because the village damaged by a wild elephant. In some villages, Thai school was established in the temple in help of the Thai government.
And, in 1985 , there is the list of the Thai temple by the Malaysian Thai Buddhism society
exists [ WatBodhiyarram 1985]. The number of Thai temples of the whole Malaysian country shows that, too. In this list, there were 37 temples in Kedah. This is the largest number of Thai temples in Malaysia. Though the distribution of the village can be thought to be in the nearest place with the distribution of the temple. And there is a report of the visit to Padang Kerbau (Thung Khwaai) village by the member of Prince of Songkhla University Patani Campus in 1987 [salatan 2529]. I did the investigation of the Samsam village of Kubang Pasu in 1990 and 1991. Whereas, it visited the Thai temple of
Padang Sera and Titi Akar, and have some talks about the present conditions from the monks [Interviewed at Pdg Sera 1992]
Since the Malaya Communist Party gave up an armament fight in 1990, the public order of
the border area improves and various limitations are being deregulated. And, the progress of the permeation of Malay education and Islamization brought a considerable change to the life of Thai-speakers. The people called ” the Samsam ” before got Malay identity, and came to have a favor caught economically by becoming Malaysian Majority ethnic group . On the other hand, they became estranged with the Siamese in the neighborhood , and there very few opportunities to play the public entertainments which it thought about with non-Islam. The younger generations who can understand Thai are decreasing year by year. For the Siamese here, the serious problem is that the advantages for the Siamese of Kedah to learn Thai language were decreasing. The understanding of the Thai character is difficult for younger generations, and it is said that the chance to use Thai Language have been decreasing more by the results of the permeation of Malay education. From there, A Thai television program can be picked up, and it is said that it can be hardly understood in this area in the house which has a television about the word being spoken to the character though it is enjoying the broadcasting of MuoiThai. Monk who comes from Bangkok is worry about the Siamese here became loss of Thai (language) identity. The Siamese is still minority as non-Muslim in Malaysia. However, the Siamese in Kedah are the native in Kedah. They do not have national identity to Thailand at present. They can see
rather deepening friendship with the Chinese as a Buddhist more.

9: Conclusions
Before the modern border was set up, the exchange and distribution of the things and people have ambiguity, and that identity was unstable, too. In the process of making nation state, people were often asked to show their identity more clear. The historical experience of Thai-speaker of Kedah is one of the examples.

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